Thrombophilia in Pregnancy: Symptoms and Treatment

Thrombophilia is characterized by a propensity for the formation of blood clots, which can lead to the occurrence of a thrombosis, stroke or pulmonary embolism, for example. This happens because the blood enzymes responsible for clotting stop working properly, which can be caused by several factors, one of which is pregnancy.

Pregnancy is a risk factor for the development of thromboembolic events, which can cause symptoms such as swelling, skin changes, placental shedding, pre-eclampsia, changes in fetal growth, the occurrence of premature birth or even a miscarriage.

Thus, it is important to carry out an appropriate treatment to avoid the occurrence of complications during pregnancy and to prevent bleeding during childbirth. Learn more about thrombophilia.

Possible signs and symptoms

Some of the signs and symptoms that can occur in pregnant women with thrombophilia are swelling, changes in the skin, placental shedding, pre-eclampsia, changes in fetal growth, the occurrence of premature birth or even a miscarriage.

What causes

Pregnancy induces a physiological state of hypercoagulability and hypofibrinolysis, which generally protects pregnant women from hemorrhage associated with childbirth, however this mechanism can contribute to the development of thrombophilia, which increases the risk of venous thrombosis and obstetric complications. .

The risk of thrombosis in pregnant women is 5 to 6 times higher than in non-pregnant women, however, there are other factors that increase the likelihood of developing a pregnancy-related thrombosis, such as having a history of venous thrombosis, having an advanced maternal age , suffer from obesity, or suffer from some type of immobilization, for example.

How the treatment is done

Generally, the treatment and prevention of venous thromboembolism in pregnancy consists of administering aspirin at a dose of 80 to 100mg / day, which acts by inhibiting platelet aggregation. Although this drug is contraindicated during pregnancy, especially in the last trimester, as it presents a risk to the baby, the benefits of its use outweigh the potential risks.

In addition, injectable heparin, like enoxaparin, is an anticoagulant widely used for thrombophilia in pregnancy, and is a safe medication because it does not cross the placental barrier. Enoxaparin should be administered daily, subcutaneously, and can be applied by the person himself.

Treatment should be carried out even after delivery, for about 6 weeks.

When to make the diagnosis

So far, it is considered that it is not justified to carry out the diagnosis in all women who intend to become pregnant, and the screening is selective and based on the personal and family history of thrombosis as well as on the reproductive history, such as the occurrence of recurrent pregnancy loss. , severe early onset preeclampsia or insufficient fetal growth, for example.

In addition, women who have some type of immobility, are over 35 years old, have a BMI over 30 and use cigarettes frequently, for example, have a higher risk of suffering from thrombophilia in pregnancy and therefore should also perform the diagnosis.