What is endemic, how to protect yourself and main endemic diseases

Endemic can be defined as the frequency of a given disease, and is usually related to a region due to climatic, social, hygienic and biological factors. Thus, a disease can be considered endemic when cases occur with a certain frequency in a given location.

Usually endemic diseases are restricted to only one region, and are not spread elsewhere. In addition, these diseases can be seasonal, that is, their frequency varies according to the time of year, as for example in the case of yellow fever, which is considered endemic in the North of Brazil and the frequency increases in the summer, which is the hottest time of the year in this region.

Main endemic diseases

The diseases considered endemic are those that appear more frequently in a given region and at specific times, the main ones being:

  • Yellow Fever, which is considered endemic in the North of Brazil and is transmitted by the mosquitoAedes aegypti andHaemagogus sabethes;
  • Malaria, which is also considered an endemic disease in the northern region of Brazil with greater frequency in the hottest times of the year and is caused by the bite of the mosquito of the genusCulex infected by the parasitePlasmodium sp.;
  • Schistosomiasis, which is caused by the parasiteSchistosoma mansoniand it is endemic in places with a tropical climate and lacking basic sanitation, especially in regions where there are often floods;
  • Leishmaniasis, which is an infectious disease caused by the mosquito bite of the genusLutzomyia infected by the parasiteLeishmania chagasi, which is more frequent in hot climates;
  • Dengue, which is one of the main endemic diseases and whose frequency of cases is higher in the hottest and driest months of the year;
  • Hookworm, which is a parasitosis caused by the parasiteAncylostoma duodenale;
  • Filariasis, which is caused byWuchereria bancrofti, being endemic in the North and Northeast of Brazil;
  • Chagas disease, which is caused by the parasiteTrypanosoma cruzi and it is endemic in regions where there is a large amount of the insect barber, which is the vector responsible for transmission to people.

The occurrence of an endemic disease depends on economic factors, such as lack of basic sanitation and treated water, cultural, ecological, such as pollution and climatic conditions that favor the multiplication of vectors, social and biological, such as people's susceptibility and transmissibility of the infectious agent. .

How to prevent endemics

In order to prevent the occurrence of endemic diseases, it is important to evaluate the factors that favor the occurrence of these diseases. Thus, in order to prevent and combat endemics, it is important that measures are taken to improve hygiene and sanitation conditions in endemic regions, as well as investing in strategies to avoid the multiplication of the infectious agent and the risk of disease transmission to people.

In addition, it is important that the occurrence of endemic diseases is reported to the health system so that preventive and control measures can be intensified.