What is Facial Skull Stenosis, Causes and Surgery
Cranial facial stenosis, or craniostenosis as it is also known, is a genetic alteration that causes the bones that make up the head to close before the expected time, generating some changes in the baby's head and face.
It may or may not be related to a syndrome and there is no intellectual impairment of the child. However, it must face some surgeries during its life to prevent the brain from being compressed within a small space, compromising other functions of the organism.
Features of facial cranial stenosis
The characteristics of the baby with facial cranial stenosis are:
- eyes slightly further away from each other;
- Shallower than normal orbits, which makes the eyes appear to pop out;
- decrease in the space between the nose and the mouth;
- head may be more elongated than normal or in a triangle shape depending on the suture that has closed early.
There are several causes for cranial facial stenosis. It may or may not be related to any genetic disease or syndrome, such as Crouzon Syndrome or Apert syndrome, or it may be caused by taking medications during pregnancy, such as Fenobarbital, a medication used against epilepsy.
Studies show that mothers who smoke or live in high altitude places are more likely to generate a baby with cranial facial stenosis due to decreased oxygen that passes to the baby during pregnancy.
Surgery for cranial facial stenosis
The treatment for cranial facial stenosis consists of performing surgery to remove the bone sutures that make up the bones of the head and thus allow good brain development. Depending on the severity of the case, 1, 2 or 3 surgeries can be performed until the end of adolescence. After the surgeries the aesthetic result is satisfactory.
The use of braces on teeth is part of the treatment to avoid misalignment between them, to prevent the involvement of the chewing muscles, the temporomandibular joint and to help close the bones that form the roof of the mouth.