Main causes of irregular menstruation

Irregular menstruation is characterized by menstrual cycles that do not follow a similar rhythm every month, making it difficult to detect the fertile period and the best period to get pregnant. In general, menstruation varies from 21 to 35 days to descend, and is considered regular when it happens every 28 days. Here's how to know if you're in the fertile period.

It is normal for menstruation to be irregular in the first 2 years after the first menstruation or in the period close to menopause, as these are moments of hormonal variations. In addition, the irregular cycle can be caused by several factors, from changes in diet, stress, excessive physical activity, gynecological diseases or changes in hormone production, for example.

So, if changes in the menstrual cycle are noticed, what should be done is to make an appointment with the gynecologist for a thorough evaluation to find out the cause and start treatment.

What can make menstruation irregular

Some of the main causes of irregular menstruation are:

1. Changes to the birth control pill

The use of the contraceptive pill is a practical way to make menstruation regular, as it leaves the hormone levels stable and according to the use of the pills. When changing the type of contraceptive, the dose or when using it irregularly there may be variations in the levels of hormones, which interferes with the decrease in menstruation. Understand how it works and how to properly take the pill.

In addition, when you stop using the birth control pill, menstruation is regulated by the production of hormones in the ovaries, which can vary from woman to woman, and the cycle may not be exactly as it was when using the pill.

2. Hormonal changes

Changes in the production of female hormones can interfere with the menstrual cycle. Some diseases that cause this type of alteration are:

  • Polycystic ovary syndrome;
  • Hypothyroidism;
  • Hyperprolactinemia.

These diseases should be investigated by the gynecologist, through blood tests, whenever the menstrual cycle is irregular, especially when there are very long cycles.

3. Dietary changes

Eating disorders, such as anorexia, as well as significant weight loss, can cause irregular menstruation, as they interfere with the ability to produce ovarian hormones, which is a way for the body to try to adapt to a lack of energy.

4. Excessive physical exercise

Excessive physical exercise, common in athletes, can cause changes or even the suspension of the menstrual cycle. This happens, because intense physical activities lead to the production of hormones, such as endorphins or ACTH, for example, that interfere with the rhythm of menstruation.

5. Gynecological diseases

Gynecological diseases such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, tumors or Asherman's syndrome, in which fibrosis forms in the uterus, for example, are diseases that cause abnormalities in the tissue of the uterus and can cause bleeding out of season or even absence of menstruation.

7. Stress

Stress, anxiety or emotional upheavals can generate the production of hormones such as adrenaline and cortisol, which interfere with the functioning of the menstrual cycle. Know the consequences of stress and anxiety to the body.

8. Pregnancy and breastfeeding

Pregnancy is the main cause of missed periods, explained by hormonal changes that are intense in this period, with the aim of generating the baby. After delivery, during breastfeeding, the lack of menstruation persists, since hormones, such as prolactin, are also produced, which inhibits the functioning of the ovaries and hinders the woman's fertility.

Chances of getting pregnant due to irregular menstruation

When a woman has irregular menstruation, it becomes more difficult to calculate her fertile period. If she does not use any contraceptive method and maintains intimate contact with a man, she is at risk of becoming pregnant. If this is not your wish, you must use a contraceptive method.

If the woman wants to get pregnant and has irregular menstruation, what can be done is to buy an ovulation test at the pharmacy, to check whether or not she is in her fertile period, so she will know when to invest in intimate contact. Learn how to calculate the fertile period, even with irregular menstruation.