IVF (in vitro fertilization): what it is and how it is done
Fertilizationin vitro, also known by the acronym FIV, is an assisted reproduction technique that consists of the fertilization of the egg by the sperm in the laboratory, which is then implanted inside the uterus, and all procedures are performed in a fertility clinic, with no sexual intercourse involved.
This is one of the most commonly used assisted reproduction techniques and can be performed in private clinics and hospitals and even in the SUS, being indicated for couples who are unable to conceive spontaneously in 1 year of attempts without using contraceptive methods.
When is indicated
Performing fertilizationin vitro it is indicated when women have gynecological changes that interfere with ovulation or the movement of eggs through the tubes. Thus, before this reproduction technique is indicated, tests are carried out to identify the cause of the difficulty in becoming pregnant and, thus, the doctor can indicate the most appropriate treatment.
However, if the pregnancy does not happen even after the treatment indicated by the gynecologist, or when there is no treatment for the observed change, fertilizationin vitro can be indicated. Thus, some of the situations in which fertilizationin vitro can be considered are:
- Irreversible tubal injury;
- Severe pelvic adhesions;
- Bilateral salpingectomy;
- Sequelae of pelvic inflammatory disease;
- Moderate to severe endometriosis.
In addition, fertilizationin vitro it can also be indicated for women who have not become pregnant after 2 years of salpingoplasty or where the tubal obstruction remains after surgery.
How it is done
IVF is a procedure performed in the assisted reproduction clinic that is performed in some stages. The first step consists in stimulation of the ovaries so that sufficient quantities of eggs are produced through the use of medications. The eggs produced are then collected by transvaginal aspiration with ultrasound and sent to the laboratory.
The next step is to evaluate the eggs with regard to their viability and probability of fertilization. Thus, after the selection of the best eggs, the semen also begins to be prepared, selecting the best quality sperm, that is, those with adequate motility, vitality and morphology, as they are the ones that are able to fertilize the egg more easily.
Then, the chosen sperm are introduced into the same glass in which the eggs are placed, and then the fertilization of the eggs is observed during embryonic culture so that one or more embryos can then be implanted in the woman's uterus. , and the implantation attempt should be performed by the gynecologist at the assisted reproduction clinic.
To verify the success of the treatment after 14 days of IVF, a pharmacy pregnancy test and a pregnancy test should be performed to measure the amount of beta-HCG. About 14 days after these tests, a transvaginal ultrasound test can be performed to assess the health of the woman and the embryo.
Main risks of fertilizationin vitro
One of the most common risks of fertilizationin vitro it is the pregnancy of twins due to the presence of several embryos inside the woman's uterus, and there is also an increased risk of spontaneous abortion, and for this reason the pregnancy must always be accompanied by the obstetrician and the physician specialized in assisted reproduction.
In addition, some babies who are born by in vitro fertilization techniques have a higher risk of having changes such as heart problems, cleft lip, changes in the esophagus and malformations in the rectum, for example.